The United States has developed the smallest three-dimensional transistor to date

American researchers have developed a new three-dimensional transistor that is less than half the size of today's smallest commercial transistor. They have developed a novel micromachining technology for this purpose, which can modify semiconductor materials atom by atom.

To keep up with "Moore's Law", researchers have been looking for ways to cram as many transistors into microchips as possible. The latest trend is vertical fin-type three-dimensional transistors, which are about 7 nanometers in size, tens of thousands of times thinner than human hair.

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Colorado published a paper at the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) International Electronic Devices Conference, saying that they have improved the latest invention of chemical etching technology (thermal atomic level etching) to achieve atomic The semiconductor materials are precisely modified on the basis of this technology, and the CMOS three-dimensional transistors manufactured by this technology can be as narrow as 2.5 nanometers, and the efficiency is higher than that of commercial transistors.

Although there are currently similar atomic-level etching methods, the new technology is more precise and can produce higher quality transistors. In addition, it reuses a common micromachining tool to deposit atomic layers on the material, which means it can be quickly integrated. Researchers claim that this allows computer chips to have more transistors and higher performance.

The fin field effect transistor (FinFET) is composed of thin "silicon wafers", standing vertically on the substrate, and the logic gate is basically wound on the fins. Due to its vertical shape, 7 billion to 30 billion FinFETs can be squeezed on the chip. Most FinFETs currently under development are 5 nanometers wide (ideal threshold in the industry) and 220 nanometers high.

The new technology reduces the problem of lower transistor efficiency due to defects caused by the material's exposure to oxygen. Researchers report that the performance of the new device in "transconductance" is about 60% higher than that of traditional FinFETs. The transistor converts the small voltage input into the current provided by the gate, which turns the transistor on or off to handle the drive calculation.

The researchers say that limiting defects will also result in higher switch contrast. Ideally, a high current is required to handle heavy calculations when the transistor is turned on, and there is almost no current to save energy when it is turned off. This comparison is critical for manufacturing efficient logic switches and microprocessors, and the researchers said that the FinFET switch contrast they have developed is by far the highest. (Reporter Feng Weidong)

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