In recent years, due to the long-term use of chemical fertilizer instead of farmyard manure, the soil often produces adverse reactions, which are manifested by poor soil structural properties, reduced water and fertilizer retention capacity, decreased fertility, soil compaction, and low and unstable crop yields. There are many ways to fertilize the soil, and â€œplanting green manureâ€ and â€œstraw back to the fieldâ€ are the most effective and direct methods. Alfalfa is a complete fertilizer rich in organic matter and nutrients of N, P and K. It is rich in nitrogen nutrients, which can improve soil organic matter, fertilize soil, increase crop yield, reduce cost and save labor. It can also save the use of chemical fertilizers. With the increase of the amount of straw returning and the growth of green manure, the soil organic matter can be continuously supplemented, the soil nutrient supply can be improved, the soil nutrient utilization rate can be improved, the total soil void content can be increased, and the soil structural properties are also light. The physiological activities of the roots of Alfalfa cultivar formed an favorable environment, which led to an increase in soil moisture of microbial groups and humus. The soil texture was tightened and loosened, which facilitated farming and facilitated the growth and development of subsequent crops. The degree of soil ripening was further strengthened, and the level of cultivation was deepened. The protection of fertilizers has been enhanced, the land utilization rate has been further improved, and economic and social benefits have also increased. At the same time, it reduces the adverse environment brought about by the investment of chemical fertilizers and has good ecological benefits. The cultivation of fertility through â€œplanting green manureâ€ and â€œstraw back to the fieldâ€ is a fundamental measure for sustainable agricultural development.
Alfalfa alfalfa, alias scorpion, scorpion scorpion, dicotyledon, genus genus is an annual or overage herb, rich in nutrients, soft grass, good palatability, is a good green feed and protein supplement for winter and spring of livestock For the balanced protein green feed. The total growth period is 230-260 days. Like cold and humid climate, it is more resistant to cold and drought, and the soil is not strict. It can grow normally on all kinds of soils, is not resistant to flooding during growth, grows in winter and spring, and is resistant to cold and drought. Planting light-leaf alfalfa in animal husbandry production can improve the rate of herbivore livestock, save feed grain, improve fertility, improve agricultural ecological structure, and increase agricultural economic benefits.
Second, cultivation management technology
1. Site selection and land preparation
(1) Site selection: According to the ecological adaptability of alfalfa, the land for planting hazelnuts should be selected at an altitude of over 1000 meters, where the land is fertile and the water is moderate. The seed land is good for the sunny slopes and sandy beaches with medium fertility.
(2) Site preparation: Before the sowing of the net species, the soil must be ploughed and soiled. Before the tillage, 10 kg of phosphate fertilizer per mu of farmland fertilizer should be used as base fertilizer or seed fertilizer.
2, the seed treatment of the scorpion has a high hard rate, in order to increase the germination rate of the seed, the seed is placed in a small amount of sand less than the seed before planting, rubbing the seed coat. Soak the seeds for about 1 day before planting, and spread them after the seed coats are inflated.
3, seeding technology
(1) Net species: From late October to early November, the soil must be ploughed before planting, broken and leveled, sowing and evenly spreading, re-cultivating 4 to 5 cm.
(2) Intercropping with corn: The last top dressing is given to the corn in early August. When the cultivating, the base fertilizer and the sorghum are evenly planted in the row, and then the soil is 3 to 4 cm thick;
(3) In the flue-cured tobacco field from late August to mid-September, excavation of tobacco roots for fertilization and tillage, sowing of the whole land or digging the tobacco line for sowing. In short, it is not allowed to plant on the land of the knot, nor to use the extensive planting after the first sowing and tilling to ensure the quality of the seeding.
4. The seeding amount of net seed or Rotation is 4-5 kg â€‹â€‹per mu, ensuring that there are more than 80,000 basic seedlings per mu; the seedlings of grain and grass are 3 to 4 kg per mu, and the seeding amount per acre is 1.5. ~ 2 kg.
5, field management in the seedling period is best to apply a seedling fertilizer, mainly nitrogen fertilizer, in order to facilitate the early growth of seedlings, which is the basis of high yield; also pay attention to prevent cattle and sheep trampling.
6, harvesting and utilization
The early growth and development of alfalfa in the leaves is the best in the flowering stage. When the forage yield is high and the nutrient content is high, it should be harvested in time. After harvesting, it is spread on the ground for 15 days, then plowed into the soil and fertilized the soil.
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